In the past, Microsoft GTSC has published a great article to solve a known issue on Windows Server 2008/2008 R2. But in some situation it does not solve the problem. In effect, the link says that we need to rename update.mum and files exactly as they are specified in the checksur.log and for some people that’s not the good way. Today I solved a same issue and below my advices :

1. As indicated in the link, you have to use “expand” command line to extract the KB file, therefore never ever use a third-party tool.

2. If after renaming the tow update files and finishing all steps but the problem is still exist, so you have to use directly the same files (with the same names in chechsur.log)  included on the .cab file after the extraction of the .msu and no need to rename and use the two update files.

Here the thread on TechNet forums (French).

Hope it helps.